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The role of glutathione in inflammation

Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide containing cysteine. It is the main antioxidant in the human body and participates in antioxidant defense, detoxification of exogenous substances, intracellular redox homeostasis, and cysteine carrier/ Storage, cell signaling, protein folding and function, gene expression, cell differentiation/proliferation, immune response, and antiviral defense.


  • Composition and synthesis of glutathione

GSH is present in all mammalian tissues and is the most abundant non-protein thiol that protects against oxidative stress.

Reduced glutathione, its active form, occurs intracellularly at millimolar concentrations in the range 1–10 mM (highest concentrations in the liver). GSH deficiency manifests primarily as increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Additionally, imbalances in GSH levels affect immune system function and are thought to play a role in the aging process and diseases of aging.

Glutathione (GSH) synthesis, chemical structure, and different forms of GSH.


  • Glutathione and pulmonary inflammatory diseases

Several lung diseases are characterized by an increased alveolar oxidant load that may deplete alveolar and pulmonary glutathione. Low glutathione is associated with abnormalities in the pulmonary surfactant system and interactions between glutathione and antiproteases in patients’ epithelial lining fluid. Normal levels of intracellular glutathione may exert a critical negative control on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be associated with activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, a transcriptional activator associated with the synthesis of multiple cytokines.

Oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lung disease. Abbreviations: PRR, pattern recognition receptor; ɣ-GCS, ɣ-glutamylcysteine synthetase; DAMP, damage-associated molecular pattern; Prxs, peroxiredoxin; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; ɣ -GT, ɣ-glutamyl transpeptidase; PAMP, pathogen-associated molecular pattern; LPC, lysophosphatidylcholine.

Inhalation of nebulized reduced glutathione increases lower respiratory tract glutathione levels and has been effectively used to treat a variety of lung and respiratory diseases, such as HIV-seropositive individuals, cystic fibrosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Chemical etc.

Glutathione has a significant regulatory role in inflammation and immunity. GSH acts as a suppressor of long-term inflammation, directing innate immune components such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils specifically to the site of infection/injury to mount an appropriate response to infection. Glutathione then guides inflammatory polymorphonuclear neutrophils to migrate from the lungs, where they cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and migrate to the site of infection to kill microorganisms. As a result, it creates more immunity and less inflammation, with consequent improvements in survival rates.

  1. Glutathione and inflammation

Inflammation is associated with excessive production of cellular ROS, leading to oxidation/damage of cellular components, enhanced inflammation, and activation of cell death pathways; oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defenses contribute to the progression of almost all diseases.

In most diseases, ROS appear to be directly related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Oxidative stress and inflammation increase aging-related phenotypes and induce and aggravate inflammatory responses, forming a chronic state of systemic inflammation.

Enhancing reduced GSH will reduce the risk associated with chronic inflammatory disease, and maintaining GSH levels with therapies that do not deplete GSH from the body would be the best option.

The best way to boost the immune system of patients with cytokine storm overload is to provide them with reduced glutathione, since reduced glutathione is already able to provide reducing equivalents from its thiol group.

The value of GSH and nutritional strategies such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, cellular Nrf2-enhancing sulforaphane, and supplements to restore GSH levels as a treatment for all inflammatory diseases including COVID-19 infection Adjuvant treatment.

GSHWORLD provides high-quality reduced glutathione (GSH), acetyl glutathione (SAG) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) raw materials. The products are exported to Europe, America, South Korea, India and other parts of the world. If you are interested in Interested in GSHWORLD products, please feel free to contact Glutathione supplier, we will be happy to provide any information you need.

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