Author: Luo Shixiao, School of Marxism, Beijing Normal University
Since the eighteenth congress of the communist party of China, China’s rapid development of transportation industry, the wisdom of the rapid use, especially in Beijing 2022 winter Olympics and Paralympic games, wisdom transportation in arranging the division and the surrounding transportation resources, solve the athletes and audience travel needs has played an important role. The overall transportation plan during the Winter Olympics fully integrates the existing and possible future urban transportation system, transportation network system, transportation operation system, relevant institutions and various customer groups, and seeks a balance between the event traffic and urban traffic. Stable security policies, accurate traffic demand prediction model, reasonable transportation hub layout, temporary traffic management measures and solutions to deal with a variety of scenarios are important guarantees for the smooth and orderly operation of the event traffic and social traffic during the Winter Olympics. Clarify the development background of smart transportation during the Winter Olympics period, summarizing the specific connotation of smart transportation, and exploring the future development direction of smart transportation are conducive to better promoting the construction and development of transportation in the new era.
1. The realistic logic of smart transportation development during the Winter Olympics
During the preparation period of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, the smart transportation industry developed rapidly, which not only depends on the connotation requirements of fine transportation management in large and medium-sized cities and the policy requirements under the background of strong transportation power, but also reflects the practical needs of important party and national events such as the Winter Olympics.
(1) Connotation requirements of fine traffic management
Fine management refers to the use of procedural, standardized and data means, through the systematization and refinement of rules, to make the organization and management units accurate, efficient, collaborative and continuous operation. The purpose is to continuously improve the efficiency and quality on the basis of minimizing the resources occupied by management and reduce the management costs, to achieve the maximum benefits. In the past few decades, cities have experienced rapid development, continuous expanding scale, rapid population expansion, and increasingly rich functions. In terms of traffic, there are widespread problems such as road congestion, inefficient management, environmental pollution and so on, which seriously restrict the sustainable development of cities. It is urgent to need the fine management mode of the transportation system to solve the increasingly prominent traffic problems in cities.
(2) Policy requirements under the background of a transportation power
Smart transportation is an important part of the construction of a strong transportation power, and also an important symbol of transportation modernization. With the rapid development of information technology and the improvement of national policy support, smart transportation has also ushered in more development opportunities. In September 2019, the Chinese government issued the Outline for Building a Transportation Country, which pointed out that it will basically build itself into a transportation country by 2035. In April 2022, the Beijing Transportation Development and Construction Plan during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period particularly emphasized that the core of smart transportation lies in “transportation”. We should vigorously rely on cloud computing, the Internet of Things and other technologies to build an intelligent management platform to provide people with smooth and safe travel services. The policy support involved in the transportation field provides a reliable guarantee for the rapid development of the smart transportation industry.
(3) The realistic needs of the Winter Olympics
A clear, concise and comprehensive overall transportation planning for large-scale sports events is an important guarantee for the successful holding of the event. Because large-scale sports events need to provide transportation services to athletes, technicians, media, spectators and other groups, and a large number of passengers will be gathered in the city in a short time. Developing smart transportation to ensure the smooth operation of the transportation system during the Winter Olympics is an inevitable requirement to ensure the smooth holding of the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games events.
2. The components of the development of smart transportation during the Winter Olympics
Perfect public transportation management system and advanced transportation technology are an important part of promoting the development of smart transportation industry. Both the management system and science and technology are inseparable from the two elements of government and enterprises. From the perspective of management system, the government through macro-control, state-owned enterprises undertake the specific operation of urban transportation operation; from the perspective of scientific and technological innovation, various policies issued by the government provide an indispensable guarantee for the enterprise in transportation technology innovation and transformation of scientific and technological achievements.”Government + enterprise” and “management + technology” have become the successful passwords to help the development of smart transportation during the Winter Olympics.
(1) The public management system helps with smart transportation during the Winter Olympics
In order to solve various problems in the development of the smart transportation industry, it cannot be realized by the government or enterprises alone. It is necessary to build a public transportation management system combined with the coordination and cooperation of the government, enterprises, the society and the people. The Traffic Operation Monitoring and Dispatch Center (TOCC), Metro Group, Bus Group and so on are all the component factors of the public transportation management system, undertaking the different functions of public transportation management, and jointly working together to help the development of the smart transportation industry.
1. Operation monitoring
Operation monitoring is an important function of the public management system in daily life. Its coverage of urban road network, bus rail, high speed, civil aviation and other 19 areas, 365 days 724 hours uninterrupted operation monitoring, through dynamic monitoring, data analysis, information release to serve urban traffic operation, analyze the current traffic pressure, to forecast early warning, command scheduling, public transport policy to provide data support, at the same time, these data can objectively reflect the urban governance level. For example, the use of shared bikes in the area can be monitored in a smart heat system, so as to show the applicable frequency of color change, so as to facilitate the subsequent release and recycling of shared bikes in the area.
2. Prediction and early warning
It is an important function of public management system to predict and warn the changes of future traffic operation. For example, the morning rush hour rainfall frequency in Beijing increased during the rainy season in July, affecting public travel. Therefore, TOCC will predict the operation status of urban traffic during the rainfall according to historical data, release to the public the rainfall concentration time, the range and the duration of the rainfall in advance, and remind the public to prepare for off-peak travel or transfer to public transport in advance.
3. Command and dispatch
As the general dispatching center of Beijing traffic operation, TOCC takes data-driven and information interconnection as the starting point in the urban daily operation and major activities, to realize the cross-industry and cross-department information sharing, and the joint command and decision-making of business systems. During many large domestic and international activities, TOCC mainly undertakes the command and dispatching work, cooperating with enterprises to arrange vehicles for specialized transport personnel, formulate detailed transport plans, and issue travel tips for the public in advance. In the activity, immediately understand the transportation and evacuation of the people involved in the activity.
4. Decision support
Based on the comprehensive transport big data system, the public transport management system has established a supporting platform for the government decision-making. Through the regular monitoring and analysis of the past quality data and historical data, the regular analysis and thematic analysis reports of different products and different spatial and temporal dimensions are generated to provide decision-making support for the relevant government departments.
5. Smart service
The public transport management system uses the data collected to analyze and make decisions, and releases them through multiple channels such as television, traffic radio, Weibo, wechat, traffic APP and other channels to provide efficient and convenient travel information services to the public. For example, during the epidemic prevention and control period, TOCC timely analyzes and releases authoritative travel related information, including epidemic public transportation vehicles, traffic blockade conditions and the operation conditions of various stations and roads, so as to facilitate public travel.
(2) Cutting-edge technology helps with smart transportation during the Winter Olympics
Beijing 2022 winter Olympics and winter paralympics held as the development of the global technology revolution, “science and technology games” is a highlight of the games, in addition to the “front” venue construction, real-time broadcast, intelligent service new technology is widely used, in the “behind” of the winter paralympics transportation security process, through a variety of science and technology blessing, “wisdom traffic” the theme has been fully displayed.
1. Cloud computing + big data
As one of the main innovative technologies of the fourth generation of industrial revolution, cloud computing + big data has reached a new height of technology application in the Beijing Winter Olympics, and M2M has become one of the main ways of information interaction. The core purpose of technology application is how to improve the traffic conditions in Beijing, to ensure the competition traffic and the daily traffic in the city, the specific application is reflected in the following two aspects. First, forecast in advance, divert peak hours, guide the public, and balance traffic. Through massive data calculation, predict possible traffic events, traffic pressure distribution of each key road, and design solutions in advance, release public traffic guidelines, such as parking guidance, accessibility service, accurate race road, bus operation time adjustment, alternative travel plan to avoid congested sections, and enjoy one-stop travel service. Second, real-time monitoring, timely scheduling, mainly for the traffic network and the operation of the vehicles. For the road network, taking the comprehensive management service system of the monitoring highway as an example, monitoring the temperature of the road surface in real time through the detector, combining with the regional meteorological information, to realize the accurate warning of the ice and snow-covered sections. For the means of transportation, monitor the Olympic special car road, boarding and landing points, parking stations, snow removal vehicles, etc., to ensure the smooth connection of each link, the abundant capacity of each station, and the smooth operation of the event transportation.
2.5G and driverless technology
The Winter Paralympic Games with 5g as the technology based driverless technology is mainly used in the Shougang Winter Olympic Park. As one of the official venues for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics, the Shougang Winter Olympics Park has a large number of staff, athletes, spectators and other travel and connection needs, as well as the procurement and transportation of goods. For the special travel needs, the intelligent transportation foundation in the park is composed of 5G base stations, roadside units, radar, cameras, MEC servers and other facilities, providing relevant personnel with intelligent transportation services such as unmanned connection, unmanned delivery and unmanned cleaning. This not only provides a safe and green travel system for the Beijing Winter Olympics, but also makes the “5G + Internet of Intelligent Vehicles” a name card of the Winter Olympics, promoting the development and commercialization of the domestic smart transportation industry, and supporting the country’s strategy of transportation power.
3. New energy technologies
“Green” is one of the important themes of the 2022 Beijing Olympics and Olympics, new energy vehicles in terms of transportation security, accounting for 85.84% of all vehicles, hydrogen fuel buses, pure electric vehicles become the main force for the winter Olympics transportation task, using clean energy vehicles during the Olympics will reduce about 11000 t carbon dioxide, equivalent to more than 50000 mu of forest carbon sink stock a year. Among them, 816 hydrogen fuel vehicles participated in the event transportation service guarantee, which is the largest demonstration application of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the world. The breakthrough point of hydrogen energy vehicle technology lies in that the first is to ensure that the car can also run smoothly in the extreme cold weather of minus 30 degrees Celsius, and the second is to ensure the safety of hydrogen fuel cell, the hydrogen fuel bus of the Beijing Winter Olympics specially adopts hydrogen-electric collision multiple coupling technology.”The technology can monitor the real-time state of hydrogen and electricity in real time and ensure the safety of the collision. It has multiple early warning functions to fully escort the safety of hydrogen fuel cell buses.”
3. The future direction of smart transportation development
The Chinese government put forward “by 2025, comprehensive transportation basic integration development, intelligent, green substantive breakthrough, comprehensive ability, service quality, operation efficiency and overall efficiency significantly improved, transportation development to the world-class level”, pointed out the direction for the development of intelligent transportation industry. In the future, to promote the development of smart transportation industry, we must focus on three aspects: talent training, government-enterprise cooperation and sustainable utilization of resources.
(1) Deepening the division of labor and cooperation between the government and enterprises
In the smart transportation industry, the government and enterprises play different roles and play different roles, and jointly constitute the public transportation management system. The party and state transportation departments of the transportation Commission have assumed the role of overall deployment, policy formulation and macro guidance, while the state-owned enterprises such as Metro Group and Bus Group are the specific implementers of the innovation and development in the transportation field. In the future, on the one hand, the government should do a good job in top-level design and macro-management responsibility, make long-term planning for the development of the smart transportation industry, and formulate favorable policies to encourage enterprises and the society to participate in the construction and development of the smart transportation industry. On the other hand, enterprises should improve their sense of social responsibility, make good use of the corresponding policies provided by the Party and the state, do a good job in the research and innovation of cutting-edge technologies in the transportation industry, promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements into economic achievements, and provide side reference for the government to better make decisions and make plans.
(2) Strengthen the guarantee of the personnel training system
Science and technology is an important guarantee to promote the rapid development of smart transportation industry. China’s intelligent transportation industry construction and development, requirements to speed up the international competitiveness and influence of intelligent high-speed rail, intelligent transportation and modern comprehensive transportation system, urgently need the international level of science and technology talents, outstanding engineering talents, with interdisciplinary talents, foreign development talents, etc.”Our need for higher education is more urgent than ever, and the thirst for scientific knowledge and outstanding talent is stronger than ever.”Universities have played an important role in talent training. Institutions of higher learning represented by Beijing Jiaotong University and Beijing University of Technology have made examples in the field of transportation personnel training. Beijing Jiaotong University connects with the national strategy, faces the future development of transportation technology, gives full play to the talent training strength and discipline advantages of universities with centennial industry characteristics, and constructs a “four-links” talent training mode of “basic research integration, discipline integration, industry and learning integration, and international communication”. Beijing University of Technology took the lead in establishing a smart transportation major, Relying on the —— “Theory and Technology of megacities Road Traffic Intelligent Control System” of the School of Electrical and Control Engineering, To meet the development needs of the digital economy, Focusing on the intelligent governance of Beijing megacities transportation system, Focusing on big data analysis, intelligent information processing, system decision support, management and management, and intelligent operation and maintenance services in the field of urban transportation, Covering school traffic control, big data, artificial intelligence, computer, urban planning and other disciplines, Cultivate new engineering professional and technical talents with higher cross-border integration ability. In the future, colleges and universities must play a key role in cultivating transportation reserve talents, deepen the cooperation between industry and science, promote the joint construction and joint education, and cultivate top-notch innovative talents.
(3) Promoting the sustainable use of the Winter Olympics heritage
In the early days of the Winter Olympics, Beijing has formulated a series of traffic command and dispatch plans for the events.”Flat command, visual scheduling, fine organization, humanized service” is an accurate summary of the traffic command and scheduling planning, many mainstream media also use “ten thousand people transportation, one thousand vehicle organization, clever scheduling” to describe this perfect personnel and vehicle distribution scheme. At the same time, the Beijing Olympics traffic overall planning also considered the demand and use after the game, both meet the demand of games, and to maximize the sustainable legacy after the game, such as Beijing high-speed rail “snow spring” new Olympic version of Renaissance intelligent emu online, Zhangjiakou-yanqing line, Beijing’s first wisdom rail transit demonstration line —— subway line 11 west (games branch) officially opened operation, etc. In the future, we should continue to make good use of the transportation infrastructure built during the Winter Olympics and the traffic management mode formed for the major activities of the Party and the state, and on this basis, further promote the implementation of more scientific and technological innovation achievements in the smart transportation industry.