Stroke: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Stroke is a medical emergency triggered by an interruption or reduction in the blood supply to a part of the brain. The tissue within the brain dies or is damaged due to this if not attended immediately. Stroke is the one of the biggest causes of disability and death globally, but if treated in a timely manner and rehabilitation process is applied correctly many of the stroke survivors can regain the function they lost. In this article, a range of stroke types, causes, signs, and treatment options are discussed.

Types of Stroke:

Ischemic Stroke: This is the most common of all the types of the stroke that accounts for about 85% of all, the cases of stroke. Ischemic strokes take place when a blood clot blocks or severely narrows down an artery that carries blood to the brain which consequently makes brain tissue starved of oxygen and nourishment.

Hemorrhagic Stroke: In hemorrhagic stroke case, a damaged blood vessel bleeds up and exposes brain cells to the tissue, and this leads to the occurrence of the brain tissue swelling and consequently, damages the brain cells. There are two main types of hemorrhagic strokes: intracerebral hemorrhage (blood vessel rupture), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (blood accumulation in the space surrounding the brain).

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): Additionally termed as “mini-stroke,” the TIA is a momentary disruption of blood flow to the brain which is responsible for stroke-like symptoms. However, unlike the genuine stroke, these symptoms persist for a few minutes to hours and do not leave behind any permanent injury. Regardless of the fact that TIAs do not necessarily result in stroke immediately, it is now acknowledged that the TIAs are warning signs of an acute stroke and should be attended to seriously. In an emergency you must rush the patient to the hospital where a team of doctors such as a Neurologist in Karachi can provide help.

Causes of Stroke:

  • Hypertension: Hypertension is the crucial cardiovascular risk factor for stroke that uniformly raises both plaque-forming ischemic stroke and life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhage.
  • Atrial Fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation refers to the heart that does not pump blood regularly thereby leading to the formation of blood clots which may block blood vessels, hence, stroke occurs.
  • Diabetes: Persons affected by diabetes are under risk of stroke due to atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries) which is responsible for ischemic strokes.
  • Smoking: Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of stroke.
  • Obesity and Sedentary Lifestyle: Being overweight or obese and leading a sedentary lifestyle are associated with an increased risk of stroke, as they contribute to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
  • Age and Family History: The risk of stroke increases with age, and having a family history of stroke or TIA also increases the risk.

Symptoms of Stroke:

  • Sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or coordination.
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.


Stroke is a serious medical condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to minimize brain damage and improve outcomes. By understanding the different types of strokes, their causes, symptoms, and available treatment options, individuals can take steps to reduce their risk of stroke and recognize the warning signs early. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately from a neurologist if you or someone else experiences symptoms of stroke, as early intervention can save lives and prevent long-term disability.

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