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Modelling Renewable Energy Sources Using Evolutionary Algorithms and Transformer Models: Financial Implications and Applications


The adoption and success of renewable energy sources rely not just on their environmental benefits but also on their economic viability. Accurately predicting their output based on environmental factors is pivotal for planning, operations, and grid stability. This tutorial leverages the fusion of evolutionary algorithms and Transformer models to forecast renewable energy output using weather data. Further, we delve into the financial implications of such advanced predictions.

Financial Implications:

The energy sector is inherently tied to financial markets, policy decisions, and operational budgets. By enhancing the accuracy of renewable energy forecasts:

Grid Stability and Infrastructure: Over or underproduction can lead to wastage or energy shortfall, respectively. Accurate forecasting minimizes such extremes, reducing the need for expensive grid infrastructure updates or backup power reserves.

Investment and Planning: Investors and policymakers need accurate data to make informed decisions. Enhanced predictions give confidence, leading to more investments in renewable energy projects.

Operational Economics: Accurate forecasts can reduce the reliance on expensive battery storage systems. They also facilitate better maintenance scheduling, reducing operational costs.

Energy Trading: The energy market benefits from accurate forecasts. Energy producers can optimize their selling price based on predicted outputs, leading to increased profitability.

Such financial implications underline the importance of improving predictive techniques in renewable energy.



Step 1: Data Preparation



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import pandas as pd


# Load dataset

data = pd.read_csv(‘path_to_dataset.csv’)

data = data[[‘temperature’, ‘humidity’, ‘wind_speed’, ‘irradiance’, ‘solar_output’, ‘wind_output’]]

train_size, val_size = int(0.7 * len(data)), int(0.15 * len(data))

train_data, val_data, test_data = data[:train_size], data[train_size:train_size+val_size], data[train_size+val_size:]


Step 2: Transformer Model Implementation


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import torch

import torch.nn as nn


class TransformerModel(nn.Module):

def __init__(self, input_dim, model_dim, output_dim, nhead, num_layers):

super(TransformerModel, self).__init__()

self.encoder = nn.Linear(input_dim, model_dim)

self.transformer = nn.Transformer(model_dim, nhead, num_layers=num_layers)

self.decoder = nn.Linear(model_dim, output_dim)

def forward(self, src):

src = self.encoder(src)

output = self.transformer(src)

return self.decoder(output)

Step 3: Evolutionary Algorithm Implementation


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from deap import base, creator, tools, algorithms

import random

creator.create(“FitnessMin”, base.Fitness, weights=(-1.0,))

creator.create(“Individual”, list, fitness=creator.FitnessMin)


toolbox = base.Toolbox()

param_space = {

‘model_dim’: [32, 64, 128, 256],

‘nhead’: [2, 4, 8],

‘num_layers’: [1, 2, 3, 4]



def evaluate(individual):

model_dim, nhead, num_layers = individual

model = TransformerModel(input_dim=4, model_dim=model_dim, output_dim=2, nhead=nhead, num_layers=num_layers)

return (random.uniform(0, 1),)


toolbox.register(“attr_model_dim”, random.choice, param_space[‘model_dim’])

toolbox.register(“attr_nhead”, random.choice, param_space[‘nhead’])

toolbox.register(“attr_num_layers”, random.choice, param_space[‘num_layers’])

toolbox.register(“individual”, tools.initCycle, creator.Individual, (toolbox.attr_model_dim, toolbox.attr_nhead, toolbox.attr_num_layers), n=1)

toolbox.register(“population”, tools.initRepeat, list, toolbox.individual)

toolbox.register(“mate”, tools.cxBlend, alpha=0.5)

toolbox.register(“mutate”, tools.mutGaussian, mu=0, sigma=1, indpb=0.2)

toolbox.register(“select”, tools.selTournament, tournsize=3)

toolbox.register(“evaluate”, evaluate)


population = toolbox.population(n=50)

ngen, cxpb, mutpb = 10, 0.5, 0.2

algorithms.eaSimple(population, toolbox, cxpb, mutpb, ngen)


Harnessing the power of evolutionary algorithms and Transformer models, we can predict renewable energy outputs with greater precision. In doing so, not only do we contribute to a sustainable environment but also bolster the economic prospects of the renewable energy sector. Such advancements are crucial in transitioning to a greener future, both environmentally and economically.

About the author: Stephanie Ness

Stephanie Ness isn’t just another name in the vast field of artificial intelligence. She’s genuinely passionate about AI, taking complex ideas and making them understandable and relatable. Stephanie’s hands-on approach and commitment to practical solutions have made her a go-to expert in the community. She’s not about the hype; she’s about results, real-world applications, and demystifying AI for everyone. If you’re curious about AI and want a clear, grounded perspective, Stephanie’s your person. Check out her work and insights firsthand on her website. Discover more at


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Vaswani, A., Shazeer, N., Parmar, N., Uszkoreit, J., Jones, L., Gomez, A.N., Kaiser, Ł. and Polosukhin, I., 2017. Attention is All you Need. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 30 (NIPS 2017). [online] Available at:

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