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Manual Website Accessibility Audit

In today’s digital-first world, website accessibility cannot be an afterthought. Accessibility means making your website usable for as wide an audience as possible, including the estimated one billion people worldwide with disabilities. It’s not just about altruism; it’s about reaching out to every potential user or customer, regardless of how they interact with the web.

Website accessibility involves designing and developing your website so that people with disabilities — whether auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, or visual — can use them. It encompasses all disabilities that affect access to the Web, including those that are temporary (such as a broken arm) or situational (such as a bright glare or an environment where audio cannot be used).

For businesses, the importance of web accessibility is twofold. Ethically, it’s about inclusivity and equality; ensuring everyone has equal access to information and functionality. Legally, it’s a requirement, not an option. Various laws around the world, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in the United States and the Equality Act 2010 in the UK, mandate that websites must be accessible to all users. Failure to comply can result in hefty fines and legal challenges.

Automated checks have emerged as a quick fix solution to assess web accessibility. These tools can scan your website and identify issues that may hinder accessibility. They are useful for catching a range of issues, but they are not foolproof. They often miss nuances that a human would catch — the context of content, the usability for different kinds of disabilities, and the subjective quality of the user experience.

That’s where manual website accessibility audits come in. These audits involve human experts who go beyond code checks to understand the experience of real users. They simulate the navigation and interaction that people with various disabilities might have with a website, offering a depth of insight that automated tools simply cannot match.

While automated checks can serve as a preliminary step in the right direction, manual website accessibility audits are indispensable for thorough compliance and an enhanced user experience. They fill the gaps left by automated tools, ensuring that websites are not just technically accessible, but truly usable and welcoming to all. It’s this combination of tools and human expertise that can help businesses not just meet legal requirements but also embrace the full spirit of inclusivity.


Understanding Website Accessibility 

At its core, website accessibility is the practice of removing barriers that prevent interaction with, or access to, websites by people with disabilities. When your website is accessible, users with disabilities can consume your content, navigate your site, engage with your services, and communicate with your business as effortlessly as any other user. Accessibility involves a wide range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities.

For many individuals with disabilities, the internet has become a key resource in many aspects of life—education, employment, government, commerce, health care, recreation, and more. Website accessibility, therefore, is crucial because it ensures that these resources are available to all, unhindered by barriers that can easily be removed with thoughtful design and development practices.

The importance of web accessibility can’t be overstressed. Globally, over a billion people—about 15% of the world’s population—experience some form of disability. In the digital age, the exclusion of these individuals from online services and information equates to a form of social and economic ostracization. Making web content accessible is about giving equal access and equal opportunity to people with diverse abilities. It is about providing the same information and services to all users regardless of how they access the web.

Legally, web accessibility has been increasingly recognized as a right for people with disabilities. Various international laws and guidelines have been established to ensure that this right is upheld:

  • The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), developed through the W3C process in cooperation with individuals and organizations worldwide, aim to provide a single shared standard for web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in the United States requires certain businesses to make accommodations for people with disabilities. Web content should be accessible to the blind, deaf, and those who must navigate by voice, screen readers or other assistive technologies.
  • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act mandates that all government information and services should be accessible to people with disabilities.

These standards and laws not only help protect the rights of individuals with disabilities but also benefit businesses by helping them reach a wider audience, improve their customer service, and avoid legal consequences.

Statistically, the potential impact of accessibility is vast. It is estimated that the global market of people with disabilities and their friends and families is over 2 billion people with a spending power of more than $6 trillion. Furthermore, a survey by the UK government found that 71% of users with a disability will leave a website that is not accessible, demonstrating the direct impact on business if accessibility is ignored.

In conclusion, website accessibility is not a nicety but a necessity. Understanding and implementing accessibility principles not only enhances the experience for users with disabilities but also provides a more user-friendly environment for all visitors. With legal mandates clear and the economic arguments compelling, the case for web accessibility becomes irrefutable. As web professionals and businesses, catering to an inclusive audience is not just the right thing to do; it’s also the smart thing to do.


Limitations of Automated Accessibility Checks 

Automated accessibility tools are vital instruments in the arsenal of web development and design, offering a preliminary means of evaluating a website’s accessibility. They serve as the first line of defense, identifying blatant issues such as missing alt text for images, lack of form labels, insufficient color contrast, and more. These tools work by crawling through the code of a website and flagging elements that do not conform to established web accessibility standards, such as WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines).

However, despite their utility, automated checks come with inherent limitations. These tools operate on algorithms and preset rules that lack the nuance and understanding of human users. One of the most significant shortcomings is the inability to perform human-like assessments. For example, an automated tool can detect whether an image has alt text, but it cannot ascertain whether that text provides a meaningful description that conveys the same function or purpose as the image itself.

Moreover, the complexity of human interactions with a website creates a multitude of contexts that automated tools cannot fully grasp. Complex interactive elements like drag-and-drop components, custom controls, or even rich media content require contextual understanding to assess their accessibility. Similarly, an automated tool might overlook the contextual meaning of content, which is critical for users with cognitive disabilities. For instance, it might not identify if the language used on a website is unnecessarily complex or if the logical flow of content is disrupted, potentially confusing or excluding users with certain cognitive disabilities.

Automated tools can also generate false positives and negatives. They might flag issues that, in practice, don’t pose significant barriers to users with disabilities (false positives), or they might fail to detect real-world accessibility barriers (false negatives). Such inaccuracies can lead to a false sense of security or an unnecessary allocation of resources to non-issues.

The human context is paramount in accessibility because accessibility is about the human experience. It’s about how people with varied abilities engage with and interpret web content. Only through manual testing, which includes user testing with people who have disabilities, can a business truly understand how accessible its website is. Human evaluators can offer insights into how actual users employ assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to navigate and interact with web content. They can judge the quality of the user experience (UX), the clarity of instructions, the ease of navigating through keyboard-only commands, and the overall satisfaction of users with disabilities.

In sum, while automated accessibility tools are invaluable for quick scans and identifying clear-cut technical issues, they cannot replicate the discernment and comprehensive evaluation that come with a manual audit. A holistic approach to web accessibility necessitates combining the efficiency of automated tools with the empathy and critical thinking of human judgment.


The Need for Manual Accessibility Audits 

The digital landscape is an intricate weave of interactivity and information, one that requires more than just algorithms to ensure it is truly navigable for everyone. This is where the need for manual accessibility audits becomes paramount, as they offer a depth of understanding and adaptability that automated tools simply cannot provide.

A manual accessibility audit involves a comprehensive, detailed examination of a website or digital product conducted by experienced professionals. It includes a range of activities from code reviews to user interface (UI) examinations, ensuring that all aspects of a website are scrutinized for accessibility. During a manual audit, experts will systematically go through the components of a website, employing a variety of tools and techniques, including screen readers, keyboard-only navigation, and other assistive technologies to replicate the user experience of people with different disabilities.

The fundamental difference between manual and automated audits lies in the qualitative versus quantitative approach to identifying issues. Automated tools can rapidly check pages against standard checklists and detect obvious technical issues. In contrast, manual audits are far more subjective and context-driven. They interpret the significance of issues, prioritize them based on actual user impact, and provide bespoke recommendations that align with the nuances of the specific content, design, and functionality of the site.

Key components of a manual audit include:

  • Expert Evaluation: Auditors with a deep understanding of accessibility guidelines and principles review the site, applying their knowledge and experience to identify potential barriers.
  • User Testing: Perhaps the most critical component, this involves real users with disabilities navigating the site. Their feedback is invaluable, offering direct insights into the practical challenges they face and the effectiveness of the implemented accessibility features.
  • Assistive Technology Testing: Manual testing includes using technologies such as screen readers, magnification software, and alternative input devices to ensure that the site works seamlessly with these tools.
  • Keyboard Navigation Checks: Auditors verify that all actions can be completed using a keyboard alone, a necessity for many users with motor impairments or those who do not use a mouse.
  • Content Evaluation: This goes beyond code to look at the readability and understandability of the content, including language simplicity, content structure, and the conveyance of information through multiple senses.
  • Compliance Verification: The audit assesses adherence to international standards such as WCAG and country-specific laws, translating the often complex criteria into actionable feedback.

Manual audits complement automated tools by filling the gaps left by the latter. While an automated tool might give you a broad view of where your site stands, a manual audit tells you how to get to where you need to be. It’s the difference between knowing that you have accessibility issues and understanding those issues well enough to fix them effectively.

Through manual audits, businesses gain not just a list of problems but a strategic partner in creating solutions—ones that are tailored, user-focused, and deeply rooted in the real-world experience of their users. It’s not just about meeting the baseline of accessibility standards, but about excelling at creating an inclusive digital space for all.


Benefits of Manual Website Accessibility Audits

The digital realm is an ever-evolving ecosystem where inclusivity can often be a transformative force for both users and businesses alike. Manual website accessibility audits are a critical component in fostering this inclusivity. Such audits provide benefits that extend far beyond compliance; they enhance user experience, broaden market reach, and protect against legal and reputational risks.

Comprehensive Error Identification

The most immediate benefit of manual accessibility audits is the breadth and depth of error identification they provide. Automated tools might skim the surface, flagging clear-cut technical violations of accessibility guidelines. However, a manual audit delves deeper, uncovering nuanced issues that automated tools may overlook. Human auditors can interpret complex content, understand context, and evaluate subjective elements such as the adequacy of alt text or the clarity of navigation instructions. This thoroughness ensures that even subtle accessibility barriers are identified and addressed.

Customized Recommendations

Each website is unique, with its own set of functionalities, design elements, and content strategies. Manual audits cater to this uniqueness by providing customized recommendations tailored to the specific needs of a website. Human auditors bring their expertise to bear on each challenge, suggesting the most effective modifications that align with a site’s particular context and goals. This tailored approach not only rectifies current issues but also equips webmasters with the insight to maintain and improve accessibility as the site evolves.

Improved User Experience for All Users

Accessibility improvements often have the serendipitous effect of enhancing the overall user experience for all visitors, not just those with disabilities. For instance, clear navigation aids users with cognitive disabilities, but it also makes for a more intuitive interface for all. Similarly, transcripts for audio content benefit those who are deaf or hard of hearing, while also serving users in sound-sensitive environments. The principle known as the “curb-cut effect” exemplifies this; what aids one group invariably benefits others. Manual audits ensure that such universal design principles are integrated, creating a more inclusive and seamless user experience.

Risk Mitigation

Non-compliance with legal standards for accessibility can result in significant legal and financial repercussions. The legal landscape, as seen with the ADA in the United States and similar legislation worldwide, is increasingly unforgiving of accessibility oversights. Manual audits provide a proactive measure to mitigate these risks. By identifying and addressing issues before they become liabilities, businesses protect themselves against legal action and the associated costs.

Furthermore, there’s the matter of reputational risk. A website that fails to cater to users with disabilities may garner negative publicity, potentially alienating customers and eroding trust in the brand. In contrast, demonstrating a commitment to accessibility can enhance a company’s reputation, signaling corporate social responsibility and an inclusive ethos.

Case Studies and Examples

The benefits of manual audits are not just theoretical; they are evidenced in numerous case studies across various industries. For example, a major e-commerce retailer implemented recommendations from a manual accessibility audit, which not only remedied compliance issues but also simplified the checkout process—resulting in a marked increase in conversions from all users.

In another instance, a government website underwent a comprehensive manual audit, which identified navigation barriers for users with visual impairments. Addressing these issues not only aligned the site with Section 508 requirements but also improved the site’s navigation structure, making information more accessible to all users, and thereby increasing citizen engagement.

Moreover, a university updated its online learning platform following a manual audit, ensuring that all students, including those with disabilities, could access educational materials and participate fully in courses. This move significantly increased the university’s enrollment, particularly among students who required accessible learning options.


Conducting a Manual Accessibility Audit 

Conducting a manual accessibility audit is a meticulous process that requires a blend of expertise, systematic analysis, and user-focused testing. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to proceed with a manual audit, with considerations on whether to hire professionals or train existing staff, as well as methods, techniques, and tools used in the process.

Step 1: Assemble Your Team

Decide whether to hire external professionals with specialized knowledge in accessibility or to train your existing staff. External auditors bring a wealth of experience and an unbiased perspective, but they can be costly. Training internal staff can be more cost-effective and build internal expertise, but it requires a commitment to ongoing education and awareness. Consider a hybrid approach for a balance of internal and external insights.

Step 2: Define the Scope

Clearly delineate the extent of the audit. Will it cover the entire website or specific pages? Are there particular functionalities, like shopping carts or login processes, that require special attention? Ensure that the scope aligns with the key user journeys and interactions that are critical to your website’s operations.

Step 3: Review Applicable Guidelines

Familiarize your team with the relevant accessibility standards, such as WCAG and ADA guidelines. Understand the different compliance levels (A, AA, AAA) and determine the level your website aims to achieve.

Step 4: Preliminary Automated Scanning

Utilize automated tools to perform a preliminary scan of the website. This can help identify obvious issues that need to be addressed and can inform the more detailed manual review.

Step 5: Manual Examination of Website Elements

This step is the crux of the audit. Review the website’s structure, content, and navigation:

  • Evaluate the HTML and ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) landmarks for proper use and semantic structure.
  • Check visual elements like color contrast, font sizes, and image alt text for clarity and appropriateness.
  • Test all forms and interactive elements for clear labels, error handling, and keyboard accessibility.

Step 6: User Experience Testing

Incorporate user testing with individuals who have disabilities to understand how they interact with the site. This should cover a range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, motor, and cognitive impairments. Document their experiences and feedback.

Step 7: Assistive Technology Testing

Utilize various assistive technologies like screen readers (JAWS, NVDA, VoiceOver), magnification software, and alternative input devices to navigate the site. This helps ensure compatibility and functional performance.

Step 8: Keyboard Navigation Testing

Ensure that every interactive element is accessible via keyboard alone, which is crucial for individuals who cannot use a mouse.

Step 9: Compile Findings and Recommendations

Document all the findings from the audit, noting both compliance issues and general usability improvements. Develop a set of recommendations with clear, actionable steps for each identified issue.

Step 10: Create an Implementation Plan

Prioritize the issues based on their impact on accessibility and develop a timeline for resolution. This plan should include immediate fixes for simple issues, as well as longer-term strategies for more complex problems.

Tools and Resources for Manual Auditing:

  • Checklists and Guidelines: WCAG checklist, A11Y Project checklist.
  • Screen Readers: JAWS, NVDA (Windows), VoiceOver (Mac), TalkBack (Android), VoiceOver (iOS).
  • Keyboard Testing: A methodical approach to navigate using only tab, shift+tab, arrow keys, enter, and space.
  • Color Contrast Analyzers: Tools like the WebAIM Contrast Checker.
  • Code Validators and Accessibility Linters: W3C Markup Validation Service, axe Accessibility Linter for browser-based code validation.
  • Documentation Tools: Spreadsheets or specialized software to track and manage findings.

A manual accessibility audit, while comprehensive, is an ongoing process. The web is dynamic, and as such, accessibility needs to be continuously monitored and updated. The effort invested in a manual audit pays dividends in making your digital presence as inclusive as possible, reflecting a commitment to all users regardless of ability.

“As you consider the meticulous process of conducting a manual accessibility audit, seeking expert assistance can ensure accuracy and compliance. Sweans, renowned for its expertise in manual accessibility audits within the UK, offers comprehensive services to meet these needs. To learn more about how Sweans can elevate the accessibility of your website, visit”


Integrating Manual Audits into Your Business Strategy 

Integrating manual website accessibility audits into regular business operations is a strategic approach that underscores a company’s commitment to inclusivity and corporate social responsibility. Rather than viewing accessibility as an afterthought or a box-ticking exercise in compliance, forward-thinking businesses recognize that accessibility is a cornerstone of customer-centric service and ethical business practice.

Operational Integration

Manual audits should be scheduled regularly, just like any other essential business review. They can be aligned with major site updates, product launches, or at set intervals throughout the year. This systematic incorporation ensures that accessibility remains at the forefront of business development rather than a retrospective consideration. By planning for accessibility, businesses can avoid the costly and time-consuming process of retroactively addressing issues and, instead, streamline the user experience for all customers from the outset.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Making the case for accessibility in the context of corporate social responsibility is compelling. Accessible websites demonstrate a company’s commitment to equal access and non-discrimination. In an age where consumers are increasingly aligning their purchasing decisions with their values, a company’s dedication to accessibility can significantly influence consumer perceptions. By advocating for and implementing comprehensive accessibility measures, a business places itself among thought leaders and changemakers who prioritize the well-being of all stakeholders.

Brand Reputation and Customer Loyalty

The long-term benefits of a robust accessibility strategy, bolstered by manual audits, extend to brand reputation and customer loyalty. An accessible website serves as a beacon of a brand’s inclusivity, potentially reaching a wider audience by catering to the more than one billion people worldwide with disabilities. This expanded reach can translate into a broadened customer base and increased revenue.

Moreover, demonstrating care for all users contributes positively to brand reputation. It shows prospective and current customers that a business is thoughtful, meticulous, and considerate of user needs. This can lead to positive word-of-mouth, social proof, and repeat patronage.

Customer loyalty is deepened when users feel seen and valued. For individuals with disabilities, an accessible website may not just be a convenience but a necessity. When a business provides for these necessities, it can engender a strong sense of brand loyalty and advocacy among this demographic and their networks.

In conclusion, integrating manual website accessibility audits into a business strategy is more than a compliance measure—it is a reflection of a company’s ethos and an investment in its future. It speaks to a commitment to inclusivity, a boost to the brand’s reputation, and a foundation for customer loyalty that can set a business apart in a competitive marketplace.



In conclusion, ensuring website accessibility is not merely a legal checkbox but a moral imperative and a strategic advantage in today’s inclusive digital landscape. This article has underscored the importance of website accessibility as a gateway for people with disabilities, delineating it as an essential facet of modern web design that benefits a significant segment of the global population.

Automated accessibility checks, while valuable for identifying some issues, fall short of grasping the full spectrum of user experience. It is through manual website accessibility audits that businesses can achieve a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of their website’s accessibility. Manual audits delve into the intricacies of human interaction that automated tools overlook, evaluating the fine-grained user experience, and providing customized, actionable recommendations.

By integrating manual audits into regular business operations, companies not only align themselves with best practices in corporate social responsibility but also invest in the long-term loyalty and trust of their customers. The thoroughness of manual audits in identifying and rectifying barriers speaks volumes about a company’s commitment to all its users, enhancing its brand reputation and fostering a more inclusive online community.

As we navigate a world where digital access is increasingly equated with equal opportunity, the message is clear: investing in manual website accessibility audits is not just good practice—it’s a business imperative. Let this be a call to action for all businesses to prioritize accessibility, to champion inclusivity, and to ensure that their digital offerings are open to all, affirming their place as leaders in a diverse and equitable digital future.

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