How Does A Cone Crusher Work: Understanding The Crushing Technology

Cone Crusher

A cone crusher is crucial, especially in aggregates and mining industries. It plays a role in crushing hard rocks into smaller rocks for further processing. Understanding how a cone crusher operates is essential to optimize its performance to achieve effective crushing. This article will delve into the components of the cone crusher, its application, operation, and working principles.

What are the Components of a Cone Crusher?

Before we take a deep dive into the working principles of a cone crusher, let’s first look at the components that make up a typical cone crusher.

Main shaft: This is the central shaft that carries the mantle, or, in simple terms, is where every material is assembled.

Mantle: It’s a fixed surface with a concave shape attached to the main shaft.

Head Assembly: The head assembly is the stationary part on the cone crusher that rotates or moves in a circular motion enabling the rocks to be crushed.

Bowl Liner: This is a ring with a concave shape surrounding the mantle. It’s important to note that the bowl liner can be replaced. 

Feed Hopper: This is the top section with a funnel shape where all the materials are fed into the crusher.

Note eccentric is a rotational mechanism that enhances the movement of head assembly in a circular motion, influencing a gyratory direction of the mantle.

How does the Crushing Process take place?

The primary purpose of a cone crusher is to reduce the size of big rocks into smaller ones. The whole process is achieved through a series of stages in the cone crusher which include:

Intake: Materials that need to be crushed are fed into the crusher through a component called a feed hopper. It’s important to note that the hardness and size of materials determine the suitable cone crusher that should be used for the job.

Crushing Chamber: This is where the materials are impacted by the bowl liner and the mantle, which are constantly caused by the gyratory movement of the head assembly. The materials are broken down into small pieces due to crushing and compression.

Reduction Ratio: This is the ratio of the size of the initial input material to the final product size. The cone crusher has a high reduction ratio, ensuring efficient material crushing.

Discharge: This is the final stage of the crushing process. When the material is crushed into the preferred size, it exits the cone crusher through an opening at the bottom. The entrance is located between the mantle and the bowl liner.

What are the Working Principles of a Cone Crusher?

The cone crusher operates based on the principles of compressive crushing. The crushing process can be achieved through the following progressive stages:

The eccentric rotates the main shaft causing the head assembly to move in a circular motion around the axis. As we have learned earlier, the mantle is fixed on the main post and positioned eccentrically to create a gap between the bowl liner and the cover. It’s important to note that the gap continuously changes its position. The mantle compresses material towards the stationary bowl liner as the head assembly gyrates, enabling an effective crushing process.

The crushing process is possible due to impact and compression forces. Once fed into the cone crusher, the materials are subjected to compression between the bowl liner and the mantle, causing a reduction in the size of the materials. To ensure consistent size and shape of the product, the cone crusher works continuously, sustaining a stable speed to handle the different sizes of load fed in.

What are various types of Cone Crushers?

Several types of cone crushers are designed by stone crusher factories  to suit different crushing requirements. They include Standard Cone Crushers, Short Head Cone Crushers, Compound Cone Crushers, and Cone Crushers with Hydraulic Systems.

Standard Cone Crusher: This cone crusher is mainly used for intermediate crushing. It’s characterized by a bowl liner with a concave shape and a very steep mantle.

Short Head Cone Crusher: It is preferred in quaternary and tertiary crushing. It’s designed with a shorter crushing cavity and a steep head angle.

Compound Cone Crusher: This cone crusher type is designed with flatter and steep crushing chambers to increase capacity. 

Cone Crusher with Hydraulic System: This is the latest and modern advancement that enables automatic overload protection, creating efficiency and safety.

What are some Applications of Cone Crushers?

Cone crushers are mainly applied in several industries, such as:

Mining: Cone crushers are used in the mining industry to crush and break down abrasive and rigid materials, which include: granite, iron ore, and basalt.

Aggregates: Cone crushers are vital in producing aggregates used for construction, such as asphalt and concrete.


It is imperative to understand the working principles of a cone crusher to optimize its performance and efficient crushing product.

To Top

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This