Everything you needed to know about ENT

Otolaryngologists are doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat (ENT), as well as the head and neck. They are also known as ENT doctors or surgeons, or otorhinolaryngologists. Otolaryngology is one of the oldest medical specialties in the world, dating back to ancient times when people used folk remedies and legends to treat ear, nose, and throat problems. The modern scientific basis of otolaryngology emerged in the 19th century with the invention of instruments such as the otoscope, the laryngoscope, and the audiometer, which allowed doctors to examine and measure the functions of the ENT organs. Otolaryngologists can also perform various surgical procedures on the ears, nose, throat, head and neck, such as eardrum repair, cochlear implantation, rhinoplasty, endoscopic sinus surgery, tonsillectomy, laryngeal cancer surgery, facial reconstruction, and thyroidectomy.

ENT organs, functions, diseases, and treatments

  • Ears: The ears are responsible for hearing and balance. The inner ear contains the cochlea for hearing and vestibular system for balance. The middle ear transmits sound vibrations. The outer ear collects sound and directs it to the middle ear.
  • Nose: The nose filters, warms, and humidifies inhaled air. The olfactory region enables the sense of smell. The paranasal sinuses also help filter and humidify air.
  • Throat: The throat includes the pharynx and larynx. The pharynx transports swallowed food to the esophagus and air to the trachea. The larynx contains vocal cords for producing speech and closes during swallowing to prevent aspiration.
  • Tonsils and adenoids: Tonsils and adenoids are lymphoid tissues that help produce antibodies and defend against infection. They can be removed if enlarged or chronically infected.
  • Parathyroid and thyroid glands: The parathyroid regulates calcium levels and bone metabolism. The thyroid produces hormones important for growth, development, and metabolism.
  • Trachea: The trachea transports inhaled air from the larynx to the lungs and exhaled air in the opposite direction. 
  • Esophagus: The esophagus transports swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach through muscular contractions. 
  • Lymph nodes: Lymph nodes in the head and neck filter lymph fluid and contain white blood cells to defend against infection and trap foreign materials. Enlarged or hardened lymph nodes can indicate inflammation or cancer.
  • Jaw and neck: The jaws contain teeth and gums, enabling biting, chewing, and speech. Neck structures include muscles, nerves, bones, glands, and blood vessels. Neck lumps or swelling require examination to determine the cause.


How otolaryngologists care for the ears, nose, and throat

  • Hearing loss: Caused by aging, noise exposure, trauma, infection or tumors. Diagnosed with hearing tests and audiometry. Treated with hearing aids, cochlear implants, medication or surgery.
  • Ear infections: Fluid buildup in the middle ear (otitis media) or inflammation of the outer ear (swimmer’s ear). Diagnosed with ear exam and culture. Treated with medication, ear tubes or ear wicks to drain fluid.
  • Tinnitus: Ringing in the ears. Diagnosed through medical history and exams. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms since there is no cure. Includes sound therapy, medication, counseling.
  • Vertigo: Sensation of spinning. Diagnosed with balance/hearing tests. Treated with medication, therapy or inner ear surgeries.
  • Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses. Diagnosed with nasal exam, imaging and allergy tests. Treated with nasal sprays, steroids, antibiotics or sinus surgery to open blockages.
  • Allergies: Immune reaction to allergens like pollen or pet dander. Diagnosed with skin prick testing, blood tests or elimination diets. Treated with antihistamines, decongestants, immunotherapy and reducing exposure to allergens. 
  • Sleep apnea: Pauses in breathing during sleep. Diagnosed with sleep studies. Treated with lifestyle changes, mouthguards, breathing devices (CPAP) or surgery.
  • Laryngitis/Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the larynx/pharynx. Diagnosed by throat exam and culture. Treated with voice rest, hydration, medication, throat lozenges or sprays.
  • Head/Neck cancer: Abnormal growths. Diagnosed with imaging, endoscopy and biopsies. Treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy.


Otolaryngology: anatomy, pathology, and surgery

  • Tympanostomy tube insertion: For chronic ear infections. Tubes drain fluid from the middle ear. Outcome is to prevent recurrent infections and hearing loss.
  • Cochlear implantation: For severe sensorineural hearing loss. Implants the middle ear to stimulate auditory nerves. Outcome is restoration of hearing.
  • Stapedectomy: For otosclerosis which fixes stapes bone in middle ear. Removes and replaces the stapes to restore hearing. 
  • Sinus surgery: For chronic or recurrent sinusitis. Balloon sinuplasty or functional endoscopic sinus surgery opens sinuses and improves drainage. Outcome is to relieve congestion and facilitate sinus drainage.
  • Tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy: For infection of tonsils/adenoids. Removes tonsils/adenoids. Outcome is to prevent recurrent sore throats, strep infections, breathing/sleep issues.
  • Septoplasty: Corrects nasal septum deviation and opens nasal passages. Improves nasal breathing and congestion.
  • Turbinate reduction: Shrinks enlarged turbinates. Opens nasal passageways and relieves chronic nasal blockage or congestion.
  • Laryngoscopy: Uses scopes to detect lesions on larynx/pharynx. Biopsies done to determine if malignant. For hoarseness, dysphagia, or throat pain. Aid in treatment planning.
  • Tracheostomy: Creates surgical airway in neck. Used when airway is obstructed or ventilation is needed. Enables breathing. Performed temporarily or permanently.
  • Neck dissection: Removes neck lymph nodes. For metastatic cancer spread. Stages and treats head/neck cancers. Combined with resection of primary tumor.  
  • Reconstructive surgery: Repairs deformities or defects in ears, nose, face and neck. Restores function and appearance. Uses implants, grafts or tissue rearrangement. Follows trauma, burns or surgical removal of cancers/tumors.


Some medical devices that are needed for ENT

  • Otoscope: A device that allows the doctor to examine the ear canal and eardrum with a magnifying lens and a light source. It can also be used to remove earwax or foreign objects from the ear.
  • Laryngoscope: A device that allows the doctor to examine the larynx (voice box) and vocal cords with a flexible or rigid tube that has a light source and a camera at the end. It can also be used to perform biopsies or remove polyps or tumors from the larynx.
  • Surgical instruments: Various tools that are used to perform surgical procedures on the ears, nose, throat, head and neck, such as forceps, scissors, knives, probes, needles, suction devices, cautery devices, drills, saws, implants, etc.
  • Surgical microscope: A device that provides magnification and illumination for the doctor to perform delicate and precise surgery on the ears or other parts of the head and neck. It can also be attached to a monitor or a camera for better visualization or documentation.
  • Video endoscope: A device that allows the doctor to examine the nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx (throat), or larynx with a flexible or rigid tube that has a light source and a camera at the end. It can also be used to perform biopsies or remove polyps or tumors from these areas.
  • Video laryngoscope: A device that allows the doctor to examine the larynx and intubate (insert a tube into) the trachea (windpipe) with a blade that has a light source and a camera at the end. It can help improve visualization and reduce complications during intubation.



Otolaryngologists are experts in diagnosing and treating conditions affecting these critical structures responsible for hearing, balance, smell, taste, respiration, digestion, speech, endocrine function, and head and neck support. They are able to evaluate complex interactions between systems and maximize outcomes through medical and surgical management.

Otolaryngologists use specialized diagnostics to properly assess ear, nose and throat conditions. They are trained to determine the underlying cause of symptoms and recommend appropriate medical therapy, procedures or surgery based on the diagnosis. Close follow up and monitoring is needed for chronic or complex disorders. Treatment aims to manage symptoms, slow progression or cure the disease when possible.

The future is bright for otolaryngology with demand increasing due to aging populations and higher expectations for quality of life. Resources, training programs and research continue to drive progress in this meaningful medical specialty.

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