3D organ printing also referred to as 3D bioprinting, is a type of additive manufacturing involving the use of biomaterials, cells, or growth factors to fabricate biomedical parts that imitate the natural characteristics of organs or tissue. The technique generally uses a layer-by-layer method for the deposition of materials called bioinks to develop tissue-like structures. Presently, the 3D organ printing method is increasingly being utilized to print organ and tissue models and facilitate the research & development of various drugs and therapeutics.
3D organ printing helps to create artificial organs and finds a wide range of applications including organ transplants, regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical research, organ-on-a-chip, and training of surgeons and physicians. Most commonly used 3D bioprinting techniques include extrusion-based bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting, droplet-based bioprinting, sacrificial writing into functional tissue (SWIFT), stereolithographic 3D bioprinting, fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS). Materials commonly used in 3D organ printing are natural polymers, synthetic polymers, natural-synthetic hybrid polymers, and cell sources.
Natural polymers such as alginates, hydrogel alginates, and fibrin polymers are integrated with cellular adhesion molecules to support cell attachment and maintain structural stability. Hydroxyapatite (HA), chitosan, gelatin, and collagen are other natural polymers used in 3D organ printing, and these polymers exhibit excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility, and wear solubility. Currently used synthetic polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyurethane (PU), and polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA), are characterized by excellent 3D printability, in-vivo tissue compatibility, and tunable mechanical properties.
Magnetic 3D bioprinting is a breakthrough in the field of 3D organ printing that is currently being commercialized by leading companies such as Nano3D Biosciences, Inc. for high-content and high-throughput drug screening. This technique uses biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles for printing cells into 3D cell cultures.
3D Organ Printing Market- Restraining Factors
Revenue growth of the global 3D organ printing market is driven by factors such as increasing applications of 3D bioprinting in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and cosmetology industries, technological advances in 3D bioprinters and biomaterials, growing use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, and increasing public & private investments in R&D activities in the field of 3D bioprinting. Market revenue growth, however, can be hampered to some extent over the forecast period due to factors such as high maintenance costs of 3D bioprinting equipment, growing concerns about the biocompatibility of materials, and a lack of highly skilled healthcare professionals.